Chapter [Sarga] 16

Introduction

On one day before the sunrise Rama proceeds to River Godavari for daily bath along with Seetha and Lakshmana. On the way looking at the nature around Lakshmana eulogises winter season. In doing so he casts aspersions on queen Kaikeyi, and Rama reproves it.


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vst> tSy tu suom! ra"vSy mhaTmn>,
zrd Vypaye hem<t\tur #> vtRt. 4161

1. mahaatmanaH tasya raaghavasya= noble-souled, that, Raghavas; sukham vasataH= comfortably, while staying; sharat vyapaaye= autumn, season, on passing off; iSTaH hemanta R^ituH= pleasant, pre-winter, season; pravartate= set in.

Pleasant hemantha R^itu , pre-winter season has set in after the passage of sharat R^itu, post-rainy season at Panchavati where the noble souled Rama is staying comfortably. [4-16-1]

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s kdaict! -atayam! zvRyaRm! r"un<dn>,
yyav Ai-;ekawRm! rMym! gaedavrIm! ndIm!. 4162

2. kadaacit= on some day; saH raghu nandanaH = he Raghus, legatee Rama; sharvaryaam prabhaataayaam = night, when becoming day at dawn; ramyam godaavariim nadiim = to delightful, Godavari, river; abhiSeka artham prayayaava = bath, for purpose of, started.

On some day when night faded into dawn Rama started for the delightful River Godavari for a bath. [4-16-2]

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> klz hst> tm! sItya sh vIyRvan!,
p&tae Anujn! ata saEimir #dm! AvIt!. 4163

3. bhraataa viiryavaan= with brother, valorous one [Lakshmana]; prahvaH= humbly; kalasha hasataH= with vessel, in hand; saumitriH = Saumitri; pR^iSThataH= at back; siitayaa saha= Seetha, along with; anuvrajan= while following; idam abraviit= this, spoke.

His valorous brother Saumitri following him humbly with a handy vessel, along with Seetha, spoke this to Rama. [4-16-3]

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Aym! s kal> s<a> iyae y> te iy<vd,
Al<kt #v Aa-ait yen s<vTsr> zu->. 4164

4. priyam vada= oh, pleasant, conversationalist; yaH te priyaH= by which, to you, is pleasant; saH ayam kaalaH= that, this one, is the time; [samvatsrasya= of the year]; sampraaptaH= has set in; yena= by which; shubhaH samvatsaraH= propitious - promising, year; alamkR^ita iva aabhaati= is adorned, as though, bright.

"Adorned by which season the promising year will be bright, oh, pleasant conversationalist, and which season will also be pleasant to you, that hemanta season has set in. [4-16-4]

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nIhar p;ae laek> p&iwvI sSy mailnI,
jlain Anup-aeGyain su-gae hVy vahn>. 4165

5. lokaH= world [people]; niihaara paruSaH = by dew, [bodies] harsh; pR^ithivii sasya maalinii = earth is, crops, has on it; jalaani an upabhogyaani= waters, not, enjoyable; havya vaahanaH subhagaH = oblation, carrier [the fire,] delightful [warmish.]

"These days the dew is harsh to the bodies of people, earth is overlaid with crops, water is unenjoyable, but fire is delightful. [4-16-5]

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nv Aay[ pUjai-r A_yCyR ipt& devta>,
kt Aay[ka> kale sNtae ivgt kLm;a>. 4166

6. santaH= righteous persons; nava aagrayaNa puujaabhiH = in new [northern,] solstice, with worships; pitR^i devataaH = ancestral, deities [manes]; abhyarcya= having appeased; kaale kR^ita aagrayaNakaaH = in time, performing, solstitial rituals; vigata kalmaSaaH = becoming free of, evils.

"On appeasing manes with worships during northern solstice and even on performing solstitial rituals in time, the righteous people are becoming free from evils. [4-16-6]

The ritual agraayaNa is a havis , oblation performed after the arrival of harvest at home from fields and before the start of its usage. Usually this is the time of Makara Sankranti, the starting day of northern solstice. na anvia gryae na hitgni navasya anyt vrhnm yavnm ymaknm iti agra pkasya yajeta -- pasthamba stra

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aJykama jnpda> s<ptr gae rsa>,
ivcriNt mhIpala ya AwRm! ivijgI;v>. 4167

7. sampanna tara go rasaaH = affluent, higher, with cows, dairy; jana padaaH= rural, areas villagers; praajya kaamaa= ample, desires [self-satisfied]; mahii paalaa= earth, rulers kings; vi jigiiSavaH= wishing to vanquish [other kings]; yaatra artham= campaigns, for the purposes of; vicaranti= making moves.

"Amply fulfilled are the desires of the villagers with the affluence of milch cows and dairy, and the vanquishing kings are make moves for the purposes of their further vanquishes. [4-16-7]

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sevmane Fm! sUyeR idzm! ANtk seivtam!,
ivhIn itlka #v I n %ra idk kazte. 4168

8. suurye= by sun; antaka sevitaam disham = by time-god, attended by, direction [namely south]; dR^iDham sevamaane= steadfastly, while attending; uttaraa dik= in northern, direction; vihiina tilakaa strii iva = lost, Tilaka [vermilion mark on fore head,] woman, like; na prakaashate= not, brilliant.

"While the sun is steadfastly attending the direction of Time-god Yama, namely southern horizon, the northern direction is not brilliant like a woman who lost the vermilion mark on her forehead. [4-16-8]

The tilaka is the vermilion mark of sindur , vermilion-red powder specially made out of turmeric and limejuice and other ingredients and called as kunkuma . This is sacred and used in daily worships and applied as a mark on forehead at a place where the Third Eye, j~naana netra is said to exist. For the women this mark is for their glorification of womanhood by virtue of the existence of her husband. Should she become a widow this mark is made no more and her face will become dullish for she is without a husband. So also the sun is such a mark on the forehead of the woman called horizon. Without him no quarters glitter.

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kTya ihm kaez AaF(ae r sUyaR> c sa<tm!,
ywawR nama suVyKtm! ihmvan! ihmvan! igir>. 4169

9. prakR^ityaa= by nature; hima kosha aaDhyaH= snow, depository, full of which is known to be the full depository of snow - Himalayas; saampratam= presently; duura suuryaaH ca= distanced, from sun; himavaan giriH= Himalayan, mountains; himavaan= is snowy; su vyaktam= very, obviously; yathaartha naamaa= true to it, name.

"By their very nature Himalayas are the depositories of snow, and presently distanced from the sun they are very obviously snowy true to their name. [4-16-9]

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ATyNt suo s<cara mXyae SpzRt> suoa>,
idvsa> su-g AaidTya> Daya sill -Rga>. 41610

10. madhyaahne sparshataH sukhaaH = in midday, by way of touch, will be comfortable; atyanta sukha samcaaraa = very much, comfortable, for rambling; divasaaH= day times; subhaga aadityaaaH= are with genial, sun; Chaayaa salila= shades, waters; dur bhagaaH= are not, genial.

"By the way of touch the mid days are comfortable and in these days the daytime is very much comfortable for sauntering, thus the sun in daytimes is genial and ungenial are the shades and waters. [4-16-10]

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m& sUyaR> snIhara> pqu zIta> smata>,
zUNy Ar{ya ihm XvSta idvsa -aiNt saMtm!. 41611

11. saampratam= presently; hima dhvastaa= by snow, overwhelmed; divasaa= day times; mR^idu suuryaaH= are with soft, sun; sa niihaaraaH= with, mist; paTu shiitaaH= bitterly, cold; sa maarutaaH= with, [wintry] breezes; shuunya araNyaa= bleak, forests; bhaanti= shining forth.

"Overwhelmed by snow presently the noontimes are with soft sun, with bitter cold, with mists and wintry breezes, and with them the forests too are bleak in their sheen. [4-16-11]

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inv& Aakaz zyna> pu:ynIta ihm A[a>,
zIta v&tr Aayam> i yama yaiNt sa<tm!. 41612

12. saampratam= presently; nivR^itta aakaasha shayanaaH= precluded is, [under] sky, reclining; puSya niitaa= Pushya constellation [in Cancer,] led by; hima aruNaaH= fog, brownish-grey; shiitaa= chilly; vR^iddha tara aayaamaH = prolonged, much, lengths [of nights]; tri yaamaa yaanti= three, three watches, slipping away.

"Precluded is the reclining under open sky as the nights are led by the Pushya constellation, they will now be with brownish-grey fog and chilly, and prolonged are the lengths of nights whereby the three watches of night will be quickly slipping away.

The three yaamaa-s or praharaH-s, are three hours or three watches, where each yaama, is three hours. The commentators said that nivR^itta aakaasha shayanaa : precluded are troubles to those that are reclining in heavens i.e., divine beings; vR^iddha tara tri yaamaa : prolonged are the nightly activities of demons. puSya aaniitaa , where puSya also means Kali, the doom, and the demons are brining it up. Thus Lakshmana is said to have reminded Rama about the purpose of his incarnation, where the gods are precluded from a restful reclining, the nightly activities of demons are on the increase, and the demons are bringing doom time, so Rama has to quicken their eradication.

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riv s<aNt saE-aGy> tu;ar A[ m{fl>,
in>as ANx #v AadzaR> c<ma n kazte. 41613

13. ravi samkraanta saubhaagyaH= by sun, transgressed, is the destiny [of moon]; tuSaara aruNa maNDalaH = fog, flush, sphere; niHshvaasa andha iva aadarshaaH= by suspire, blinded, like, mirror; candramaa na prakaashate= moon, not, lustrous.

"Transgressed is the destiny of moon by the sun as moon lost the chance of keeping people happy with his lustrousness in these days, thus the lustreless moon remained in a blushing sphere with fog, just like a mirror blinded by the fog of a suspire. [4-16-13]

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JyaeTa tu;ar milna paE[RmaSyam! n rajte,
sIta #v c Aatp Zyama lyte n tu zae-te. 41614

14. paurNamaasyaam= on full moon day; tuSaara malinaa= by mist, blemished; jyotsnaa na raajate= moonlight, not, shiny; aatapa shyaamaa= by sun heat, blackened - swarthy; siitaa iva lakSyate= Seetha, like, appearing; na tu shobhate= not, but, bright.

"Even on a full moon day the moonlight is unbright blemished by mist, and it is appearing like brightly Seetha becoming swarthy by suns heat, but not brightly. [4-16-14]

The word chandra is a derivative of chadi hlaadane 'one that gives pleasance. But it is obscured by suns heat and given is his title chandra to the sun. The sun is titled as tapanaH 'burner'. On taking the title of the moon the sun has become moon. So also, on taking the functions of gods Ravana has become a nuisance. This is a reminder to Rama. Seetha is blackened by the burning sun, but not lost her pleasance, for that reason alone Ravana abducts her.

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kTya zItl SpzaeR ihm iva> c sa<tm!,
vait pimae vayu> kale i gu[ zItl>. 41615

15. prakR^ityaa shiitala sparshaH= by nature, cool, for touch; saampratam= presently; hima viddhaaH= by snow, marred [charged with]; pashcimaH vaayuH= western, breeze; kale [kalyam] dviguNa shiitalaH= in time [in early hours,] twofold, chilly; pravaati= wafting.

"The western breeze by itself will be cool to touch, but presently charged with snow it is wafting doubly chilly in the early hours. [4-16-15]

The vernal breeze will be cool by its nature and so is the Omnipotent. Now the snowy dew enriches the breeze's coolness. So also the Omnipotent, namely Rama, is doubly cool by the coolness of the prayers of divinities and the sages as well. Govindaraja.

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ba:p CDain Ar{yain yv gaexUmv<it c,
zae-Nte A_yuidte sUyeR ndi> aENc sarsE>. 41616

16. baaSpa cChannaani araNyaani= dew, covered,, forests; yava godhuumavanti ca= having barley, wheat, also; shobhante abhyudite suurye= glistening, at rise of, sun; nadadbhiH kraunca saarasaiH = callings, of krauncha, saarasa [waterfowls.]

"Covered with the dew the forests that already covered with crop fields of barley and wheat are beaming forth, together with the callings of waterfowls, at the rise of the sun. [4-16-16]

The sun now risen is Rama. The word baaSpa also means tears. The fertile lands are shedding tears in fear of Ravana. Again baaSpaH is vapour that spreads. Rama's benevolence is spreading like vapour. The forests are with full crops. The lands are full with asceticism and Vedic practices to receive the mercy of Rama. The birds' callings are the echoing of Vedic sonority. Govindaraja. The yava grains are not exactly western barley grains as usually shown in lexicons. It is called locally as jov dhaan and is used in fire oblations, . It is a dietary prescription to diabetics nowadays.

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ojURr pu:p Aakiti-> izraei-> pU[R t{fulE>,
zae-Nte ik<icd Aal<ba> zaly> knk -a>. 41617

17. kanaka prabhaaH shaalayaH = golden, in lustre, paddy fields; kharjuura puSpa aakR^itibhiH= date-fruit, flowers, in shape; puurNa taNDulaiH= full with, grain; shirobhiH= at heads corn cobs; kimcit aalambaaH= a little, bent down; shobhante= gleaming forth.

"The paddy crops in fields are gleaming forth with golden lustre, and their heads full with grain and a little bent down are shapely like the flowers of date-fruit. [4-16-17]

The heads of crops are a little bent down by weight of corn, like the heads of sages who bow down with the weight of knowledge before the Absolute. Thus their age-old golden hair is gleaming at the first rays of sun. Govindaraja.

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myUoE> %psrpi> ihm nIhar s<v&tE>,
rm! A_yuidt> sUyR> zza<k #v lyte. 41618

18. hima niihaara samvR^itaiH = with snowy, mist, besieging; upasarpadbhiH mayuukhaiH = though spreading around, are sunbeams; suuryaH duuram abhyuditaH = sun, distantly, [up on sky,] came up; shashaanka iva lakSyate = moon, to be, appearing to be.

"Though he came up long back, and though his beams are spreading around, besieged by snowy mist the sun is appearing as moon. [4-16-18]

The sun again is Rama. 'Though you have risen in the vast of forests long back and avowed to eradicate demons, has your radiance decreased like the vernal sun, while the demons are still radiant by their activities...' is the question of Lakshmana. Govindaraja.

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Aa vIyR> pUvaRe mXyae SpzRt> suo>,
s<rKt> ik<icd Aapa{fu> Aatp> zae-te i]taE. 41619

19. puurvaahNe a+graahya viiryaH = in mornings, not, usurped / inappreciable, valour [warmth of sun]; madhyaahne sparshataH sukhaH = at noontime, for touch, comfortable; samraktaH kimcit aapaaNDuH= reddish, a little, palish; kSitau aatapaH shobhate = on earth, sun-warmth, radiating.

Inappreciable is the warmth of sun in the mornings, but comfortable for touch at noontimes, since the reddish but a little palish sunshine is radiating on earth. [4-16-19]

The warmth of the sun is his valour which is usurped by the snowy mist. Ramas valour is usurped or inappreciable by his taciturnity. Then Lakshmana is deemed to have said, 'The demons are dominating the nature with their cold-blooded activities like coldish snow, oh, Rama, sustaining them with kind of cool profile of yours is inapt of you...' Govindaraja.

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AvZyay inpaten ik<ict! i zala,
vnanam! zae-te -Uimr iniv t[ Aatpa. 41620

20. avashyaaya nipaatena= by dewdrops, falling; kimcit praklinna shaadvalaa= a little, moistened, are pasturelands; niviSTa taruNa aatapaa= radiance, tender, sun-warmth; vanaanaam bhuumiH shobhate= of forests, lands, are enlivened.

"The pasturelands are a little moistened with the fall of dewdrops, but the fields of forest are enlivened by the radiance of tender suns warmth. [4-16-20]

The pastureland are like the serene sages who are wetting their faces with droplets of merciful tears by the activities of the demons. And now the warmth of the tender sun / valour of Rama, is radiating on the countenances of pasturelands/sages which will be furious henceforth. Govindaraja.

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Sp&zn! tu suivpulm! zItm! %dkm! ird> suom!,
ATyNt t&i;tae vNy> its<hrte krm!. 41621

21. atyanta tR^iSitaH= intensely, thirsty; vanyaH dviradaH= forest, elephant; su vipulam = with very, broad [trunk]; [or, suvimalam= very clear water]; shiitam udakam sukham spR^ishan= cold, water, easily, on touching; karam prati samharate = trunk, in turn, backs away [taking back.]

"On easily touching very clear and cold water with its very broad trunk that intensely thirsty wild elephant is backing away its trunk for the water is that cold. [4-16-21]

Gods are withdrawing to touch pleasurable items that are usually enjoyable to them, fearing Ravana. Govindaraja

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@te ih smupasIna ivhga jlcair[>,
n AvgahiNt sillm! AgL-a #v Aavhm!. 41622

22. samupaasiinaa= nearby sitting; ete jala caariNaH= these, water, movers; viha gaa= sky, going birds waterfowls; a+pragalbhaa= not, courageous ones cowards; aavaham iva= into battle, like; salilam na avagaahanti = water not, going in.

"These waterfowls that are sitting nearby are not entering into waters like cowards not entering battlefields. [4-16-22]

The waterfowls are compared with the sages. The sages though staying nearby asceticism, like birds sitting on riverbanks, are not able to enter into its enjoyable main realm, namely samaadhi, concentration. Another way is 'oh Rama, though you are an expert in warfare why you are backing away for a war with demons? Why not jump to it? Are you like these fearing waterfowls?'

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AvZyay tmae na nIhar tmsa Aav&ta>,
sua #v lyNte ivpu:pa vn rajy>. 41623

23. avashyaaya tamaH naddhaa= by snowy, darkness, subdued; niihaara tamasaa aavR^itaaH= by mist, gloom, enclosed; vi puSpaa= without, flowers; vana aajayaH = forest, ranges; pra suptaa iva lakSyante= well-slept, like, appearing.

"Subdued by snowy darkness, enclosed in misty gloom, and reft of flowers these forest ranges appear like those that are asleep. [4-16-23]

Mantled by darkness and dewdrops dribbling, the leaves and leaflets are crouched and look like sleeping ones. Further blanketed by the mist they are appearing as those that are sleeping covering a blanket. Flowers are not blooming like the closed eyes of a sleeper. Thus the woodlands are asleep. Govindaraja.

For those who are asleep it is a double darkness. One is the darkness of sleep, while the other is the darkness of night. They not only crouch in themselves with the inner darkness, but as they are also enfolded by the external darkness of night, they further crouch in. Maheshvara Tiirtha. By this sleep attribute, the dormant disposition of sages is made evident.

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ba:p s<c silla t iv}ey sarsa>,
ihmaR valukE> tIrE> sirtae -aiNt sa<tm!. 41624

24. saampratam= now; baaSpa samcChanna salilaa= mist, covered, waters; ruta vij~neya saarasaaH= by calling, perceptible, saarasa water birds; saritaH= rivers; hima aardra = by mist, wet; vaalukaiH tiiraiH= with sandbanks, declivities - shores; bhaanti = they glisten.

"Now the rivers are imperceptible as their water is overspread with dewdrops, but their water-birds are perceptible only by their callings, thus making that river perceptible, and such rivers are now glistening with moist sandbanks and shores. [4-16-24]

By rivers the sages are denominated and they are all enshrouded by the mist called the fear of demons, and they are perceptible just by their groaning. They are unable to come out of that misty climate, as good as waterfowls dependent on rivers.

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tu;ar ptnat! cEv m&Tvat! -aSkrSy c,
zETyat! Ag ASwm! Aip aye[ rsvt! jlm!. 41625

25. tuSaara patanaat caiva= snow, by fall, also thus; bhaaskarasya= of sun; mR^idutvaat shaityaat= softness, coldness; rasavat jalam = tasty, water; aga agrastham api [or, agaatha staham api]= on mountain, peak, even [deep down, even in wells]; praayeNa = generally; [apeyam= drinkable.]

"Owing to the fall of snow, further owing to the softness and coldness of sun, the water deep down the wells is generally agreeable for drinking. [4-16-25]

This falling of the snow is indicative of the falling of demons upon sages, and sun's softness is with the soft attitude of Rama. Tiirtha.

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jra jjRirtE> pE> zI[R kesr ki[RkE>,
nal ze;a ihm XvSta n -aiNt kmlakra>. 41626

26. kamala aakaraaH= lotus, lakes; jaraa jarjaritaiH patraiH [padmaiH]= with aged, withered, petals [lotuses]; siirNa kesara karNikaiH= with decrepit, fibrils, carpels; naala sheSaa= peduncles, remnant; hima dhvastaa= by cold, impaired; na bhaanti = not, glowing.

"Lotus lakes are left alone with stalks of lotuses as their petals are aged and withered, decrepit are the fibrils and carpels, thus impaired by cold they are ungracious in look. [4-16-26]

When the demons destroy the lake-like hermitages and their inmates, aged and withered sages and their lotus-petal like austerities are shattered by the hostilities of demons, and the remaining hermits are just like the stalks of lotuses left behind.

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AiSmn! tu pu;Vya kale >o smiNvt>,
tprit xmaRTma Tvt! -KTya -rt> pure. 41627

27. asmin tu kale= during this, but, time; puruSavyaaghra = manly-tiger Rama; harmaatmaa bharataH= noble-souled, Bharata; duHkha samanvitaH= anguish, along with; tvat bhaktyaa= in you, with adoration; pure tapaH carati= in city, ascesis, he undertakes.

"But during this time, oh, manly-tiger, ushered by anguish that virtue souled one Bharata must be practising ascesis in city with adoration to you. [4-16-27]

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TyKTva raJym! c manm! c -aega< ivivxan! bn!,
tpSvI inytahar> zete zIte mhItle. 41628

28. raajyam ca maanam= kingdom, as well, pride; vividhaan bahuun bhogaan ca pleasures, varied, various ones, also; tyaktvaa= on forsaking; tapasvii= in self-denial; niyata aahaaraH= regulated, in food; shiite mahii tale shete = chilly, on earths, surface, sleeping.

"On forsaking kingdom and pride of becoming the king of Ayodhya as well, and varied and various pleasures too, he is in self-denial, and with his food regulated he sleeps on chilly surface of earth. [4-16-28]

So far Lakshmana spoke about spring season indicating the sufferings of saints and sages by the chill and icy effects of demons indirectly. Now his broodings are turning to Bharata, for Bharata is avowed to self-immolate if Rama were not to come after a fixed time, and Rama is lingering here.

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sae=ip velam! #mam! nUnm! Ai-;ek AwRm! %*t>,
v&t> kiti-r inTym! yait sryUm! ndIm!. 41629

29. saH api= he, even; imaam velaam= at this, time; abhiSeka artham udyataH = taking bath, for the purpose of, got up; nityam= always; prakR^itibhiH vR^itaH= by ministers, surrounded; sarayuum nadiim prayaati = to Sarayu, river, he proceeds; nuunam= definitely.

"Even he might always be getting up at this time of the day and proceeding to River Sarayu for a bath surrounded by ministers, definite is that. [4-16-29]

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ATyNt suo s<v&> sukmarae ihmaidRt>,
kwm! tu Apr rae;u sryUm! Avgahte. 41630

30 atyanta sukha samvR^iddhaH= very much, in comfort, he is brought up; sukumaaraH= delicate one; a+para+raatreSu= not, in post, of night [in small hours]; hima aarditaH sarayuum = by cold, wet, in Sarayu; katham= how; avagaahate= he enters.

"But how can he who is brought up in high comfort, a delicate one too, enter the cold-wet waters of River Sarayu, in these small hours. [4-16-30]

The compound atyanta sukha samvriddhaH brought up in comfort is but natural to a prince, but it is in its princely loftiness. But our father King Dasharatha has made it loftier. And you by your brotherly caring , you also looked Bharata. atyanata sukumaaraH by his feelings he is a delicate one who cannot tolerate your absence. In other mms it is sukhochita in place of hima aardra which means one who is habituated to pleasures of a younger prince, but not to become a monk in these early years of his youth. So you should relieve him of his vow. This is the import of Lakshmana's address to Rama.

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ppe][> Zyam> Iman! indrae mhan!,
xmR}> sTyvadI c I in;exae ijteiNy>. 41631
iyai--a;I mxurae dI"Rba> AirNdm>,
s<TyJy ivivxan! -aegan! AayRm! svaRTmna Aait>. 41632

31. padma patra ekSaNaH= one with lotus, petal, eyes; shyaamaH= blue-black [by complexion]; shriimaan= imposing one; nir+udaraH= without, stomach [slender waisted lion]; mahaan= noble one; dharma j~naH= dharma, knower of; satya vaadii ca= truth, advocate; also; hrii niSedhaH= ignominy, intolerant of; jitendriyaH= sense-restrained one; priya abhi bhaaSii= dearly, talking; madhuraH= sweetly [talking]; diirgha baahuH= long, armed one - dextrous; arindamaH = enemy-destroyer; such as Bharata is; vividhaan bhogaan samtyajya = various, pleasures, on foregoing; sarva aatmanaa= in any way; aaryam= adorable one [you alone are]; aashritaH= devoted to.

"That lotus-petal eyed one with blue-black complexion is an imposing one with lion-like waist, being the noblest he is knower of dharma thus an advocate of truth, and thus intolerant of ignominy, and as a self-restrained one he talks dearly and sweetly, and he is dextrous and an enemy-destroyer, such as he is, that Bharata on forgoing all of his various pleasures he is devoted to you, as you alone are his adorable brother. [4-16-31, 32]

Stomachless is not to say that Bharata is without a stomach but has a palm-like concave stomach, but not a potbelly to stomach the kingdom of Ayodhya that is easily usurped through his mother Kaika.

Verse Locator

ijt> SvgR> tv aa -rten mhaTmna,
vnSwm! Aip tapSye y> Tvam! AnuivxIyte. 41633

33. yaH= he who is; vanastham api= in forests, even though; tvaam anuvidhiiyate= you, following; taapasye= in the practise of austerities; such a; tava bhraatraa= your, brother; mahaatmanaa bharatena = by great-souled, Bharata; jitaH svargaH = conquered [here, refused,] heaven.

"Even though you are in forests far away from him, he is following you in the practise of austerities, and such a brother of yours, that great-souled Bharata has refused ascent to heaven. [4-16-33]

Bharata though staying in kingdom he is observing asceticism following the trend of Rama. By grief Bharata might have been dead, like King Dasharatha, and ascended to heavens. But Bharata's going to heavens is a hindrance in getting a glimpse of Rama after return from exile. So Bharata's refusing the heavens is said to be his conquering heavens. Lakshmana is quickening Rama's thinking to take some action to complete his mission in eradicating the demonic atrocities and quickly return to Ayodhya, lest time slips by and Bharata may self-immolate. After these many thoughts, now Lakshmana starts to move the eye of the needle towards Kaikeyi, the root cause for all miseries.

Verse Locator

n ipym! AnuvNtRNte mat&km! ipda #it,
Oyatae laek vadae Aym! -rten ANywa kt>. 41634

34. dvi padaa= two, footed, [bipeds, humans]; pitryam= fathers [nature]; na anuvarntante= will not, follow - derive; maatR^ikam= [but] mother's [nature they follow]; iti khyaataH= thus, known as; ayam loka pra vaadaH= this, in world, well, saying [epigram]; bharatena anyathaa kR^itaH= by Bharata, otherwise, made [rendered.]

" Humans do not derive fathers attitude but they take of their mothers is the well-know maxim in the world, but Bharata rendered it otherwise. [4-16-34]

This is a proverbial saying that humans inherit mother's characteristics but not father's. But Bharata renders it otherwise for he has not inherited the mean and sordid nature of Kaikeyi. This proverbial saying is still in use in all languages in India, with a little change. In Marathi it is khaanaa tashii maatii va jaatii tashii potii' after Dr. Satya Vrat. This stems up from the Sanskrit dhany pit mukh kany dhany mt mukha suta 'Blest is father-like daughter, blest is mother-like son.'

Verse Locator

-taR dzrwae ySya> saxu> c -rt> sut>,
kwm! nu sa AMba kEkeyI tazI rdizRnI. 41635

35. yasyaaH= she to whom; dasharathaH bhartaa = Dasharatha is, husband; saadhuH bharataH sutaH ca= gentle, also, Bharata, the son, also; saa ambaa= such, [our] mother; kaikeyii= Kaikeyi; taa dR^ishii kruura darshinii katham nu = that, sort of, cruel, in mien - disposition, how, indeed.

"Whose husband is Dasharatha and whose son is gentle Bharata, how then can she, our mother Kaikeyi, is with this sort of cruel disposition, indeed" Thus Lakshmana spoke to Rama on their way to River Godavari. [4-16-35]

Rama uses the same wording for Kaikeyi as our middle mother at 3-2-19b-20

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#it @vm! lm[e vaKym! ehat! vdit ximRke,
pirvadm! jnNy> tm! Ashn! ra"vae AvIt!. 41636

36. dharmike lakSmaNe snehaat= by upright, by Lakshmana, out of fondness [to Rama and Seetha]; iti evam vaakyam vadati= this, way, sentences, while saying; raaghavaH jananyaH= Raghava, about mother; tam pari vaadam= against, telling [slanderous talking]; a +sahahan = not, tolerating; abraviit= spoke.

When that upright Lakshmana is speaking those words that way out of his fondness towards Rama, Raghava spoke to Lakshmana, intolerant of that slanderous talk about their mother. [4-16-36]

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n te AMba mXyma tat gihRtVya kw<cn,
tam! @v #vak nawSy -rtSy kwam! k. 41637

37. taata= oh, dear Lakshmana; madhyamaa ambaa = middle [second, another,] mother; kathamcana= in any way; te na garhitavyaa= by you, not, deplorable; ikSvaaku naathasya bharatasya= Ikshvaku-s, king, Bharata's; taam kathaam eva kuru= those, stories [topics,] alone, you make [you tell.]

"In any way, dear Lakshmana, you are not supposed to deplore another mother of ours, but you go on telling the topics of Bharata, the king of Ikshvaku-s. [4-16-37]

Verse Locator

inita @v ih me bui> vn vase F ta,
-rt eh s<ta bailzI iyte pun>. 41638

38. me buddhiH nishcitaa eva hi my, mind, set upon, that way, indeed; vana vaase dR^iDha vrataa= in forest, dwelling, firmly, avowed; [api= even then]; bharata sneha samtaptaa= for Bharata's, fellowship, well, burning [yearning for]; punaH baalishii kriyate = again, boyishness [fascination,] is made [recurs.]

"My mind is indeed set to dwell only in forest, and it is firmly avowed, but while yearning for Bharata's fellowship my fascination to reunite with him is recurring again. [4-16-38]

Verse Locator

s<Smraim ASy vaKyain iyai[ mxurai[ c,
*ain Am&t kLpain mn> adain c. 41639

39. priyaaNi madhuraaNi hR^idyaani amR^ita kalpaani= genial, sweet, heartily, ambrosia, equal to [ambrosial]; manaH prahlaadaani ca= heart, gladdening [heartening words]; asya vaakyaani= his, words; samsmaraami= I an reminiscing.

"I reminisce his words well, that are genial, sweet, heartily, ambrosial and that will gladden the heart. [4-16-39]

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kda ih Ahm! sme:yaim -rten mhaTmna,
zuen c vIre[ Tvya c r"un<dn. 41640

40. raghu nandana= oh, Lakshmana; aham mahaatmanaa bharatena = I, with great-souled, Bharata; viireNa shatrughnena= with valorous, Shatrughna; tvayaa ca= with you [Lakshmana,] also; kadaa hi sameSyaami= when, really, I reunite.

"When can I really reunite, oh, Lakshmana, with great-souled Bharata, valorous Shatrughna, and with you and Seetha. Thus said Rama to Lakshmana. [4-16-40]

Usually the word ca means 'also, and.' In compound tvayaa ca raghunandana it is said to indicate Seetha.

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#it @vm! ivlpn! t aPy gaedavrIm! ndIm!,
ce Ai-;ekm! kakTSw> sanuj> sh sItya. 41641

41. kaakutsthaH= Rama; tatra= there; iti evam vilapan= thus, that way, worrying; godaavariim nadiim praapya = Godavari, river, having reached; sa anu ja = with younger brother; sa siitayaa= with, Seetha; cakre abhiSekam = performed, bathing,

Thus worrying that way while proceeding, there Rama reached River Godavari and performed bathing with his younger brother Lakshmana and along with Seetha. [4-16-41]

Verse Locator

tpRiyTva Aw sillE> tE> iptn! dEvtain c,
StuviNt Sm %idtm! sUyRm! devta> c twa An"a>. 41642

42. atha= then; taiH= by them; salilaiH= with water; pitR^In daivataani ca= to manes, to gods, also; tarpayitvaa= having offered oblations; uditam suuryam= uprisen, sun; devataaaH ca= gods, also; anaghaaH= sinless trinity [Rama, Lakshmana, Seetha]; stuvanti sma= extolled, they are.

Then on offering water oblations to manes and gods that impeccant trinity extolled the rising sun and gods likewise. [4-16-42]

Verse Locator

ktai-;ek> s rraj ram
sIta itIy> sh lm[en,
kt Ai-;ekae tu Ag raj puya
> s niNd> -gvan! #v $z>. 41643

43. siitaa dvitiiyaH=Seetha, as second-half [along with]; saH raamaH= that, Rama; kR^ita abhiSekaH= on making [having taken,] river bath; saha lakSmaNena= with Lakshmana; aga raaja putryaa= with mountain, king's, daughter [Paarvati]; kR^ita abhiSekaH= making [having taken,] sacred bath, but; sa nandiH= one with Nandi, the Holy Bull; iishaH bhagavaan rudraH iva= all-controlling, god, Rudra [Shiva in fury,] like; raraaja= shone forth.

On taking bath in the river along with Seetha and Lakshmana, Rama shone forth like All-controlling god Rudra, who will be radiant on taking bath along with his consort Paarvati and with his follower Nandi, the Holy Bull. [4-16-43]

The similitude between Rama and Shiva suggests that Rama is about to start destruction of demons.

.

Extolling seasons in epics

The portrayal of seasons in epics with all their delicacies is a disputed topic. Ramayana also deals much on these descriptions of seasons. Whether an epic avowed to reflect the Vedic import, as said at 1-4-6, vedopabR^ihmaNaarthaaya , and that which is pious and merited puNyam vedaischa samamatam at 1-1-98, should have accounts on seasons is the question. For this is said that relating niceties of season time and again, is in perfect accord with Veda, for the season and time are subservient to all Veda-s as per the ancillary of Veda, the Astrology, veda-anga : jyotiShya . Veda-s themselves say that the year is the soul of the horse of Ashvameda. u v avasya medhasya ira |  savatsara tmvasya medhasya | -- yajurveda bhadrayaka Hence time and season are the mind and soul of all Veda-s.

Like this we find beautification of four seasons at four places, for e.g., hemanta spring is narrated in starting of Kishkindha. And vasanta post autumnal season is described in Kishkindha 43rd chapter, when Hanuma and others are in search for Seetha, and after their exit from the cave of Swayamprabha. varSa rainy season is portrayed in 28th chapter of Kishkindha. At every possible occasion, all the rituals, daily routines that are time oriented, do explain the importance of time than the importance of ritual or daily routine. It is said: vedopabhmartham pravtte asmin granthe veda vihita karma apekita kla viea niryakatvt kla sdhraa lakaa pratipdanam eva tat tat tu varana vyjena ktam iti dharmopayoga sambhavt | -- syam kldi cihna pratipdanam iti etat sarvam karma anuna upayukta kla jpanrtham eva ktam iti dharma paryavasnam sambhavati eva -- dharmktam

Thus dharma is upheld in all these narratives about the season and time, which aspect is upheld by the commentators and they too comment lengthily whenever a season or time factor occurs.

 

#it vaLmIik ramay[e Aaid kaVye Ar{y ka{fe ;aefz> sgR

Thus, this is the 16th chapter in Aranya Kanmda of Valmiki Ramayana,the First Epic poem of India.


Verse Locator for Book III : Aranya Kanda The Forest Trek : Chapter 16

 

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Sarga 16 in English Prose

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2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : May 04]